Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Obesity in racial disparity? Input the data using the resource available down - Wridemy Bestessaypapers

Obesity in racial disparity? Input the data using the resource available down

topic- obesity in racial disparity 

Input the data using the resource available down. The purpose of this activity is for you to practice creating your own dataset in preparation for the Community Health Data Profile assignment.

Data Table (1) – Required

Variable1 Variable2 Number

Description – Required

Data Source(s):
Next to Source 1, fill in the reference to the data you used to create your data tables. If there is more than one source, use the blank(s) next to Sources 1 and 2 for the next references.
Source 1: (required)
Source 2: (optional)
Source 3: (optional)
Charts Planned:
Provide a description of the charts planned. Be sure to include which variables. There must be at least three charts. If you do not have enough data for three charts, find additional data sources and add to the Data Table 2 and Data Table 3 tabs.
Chart 1: (required)
Chart 2: (required)
Chart 3: (required)

Data Table (2)

Variable1 Variable2 Number

Data Table (3)

Variable1 Variable2 Number


Information adapted from CDCynergy “Lite” by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Message Outline Guidelines

Overall Directions This outline serves as the plan for your website. Make sure your responses are about your website and within your control right now. Your website will be an intervention for a particular health topic. Here is an example description that encompasses the goal of a website, along with the target audience, and objective:

The website will provide healthy ingredients for pregnant women and mothers of young children who want to make good choices and establish well-balanced diets for their children. These ingredients will be provided along with information on childhood obesity, what puts people at risk of becoming obese, and its negative consequences along with how to affordably feed the whole family nutrient-rich foods. The site will also provide common replacements for foods that are nutrient-poor or high in sugar or calories (e.g., Greek yogurt as replacement for sour cream).

Keep this description in mind when completing the sections below. More information, with coordinated examples, will be provided in the sections below. Be sure to add references to the section along with citations within the text, according to APA style. You will use this plan when you develop the website. So, try to make plans that you can accomplish and use references that you can paraphrase on your website. Avoid directly quoting, and write in your own words, using a citation at the end of the sentence.

Problem Description What is the problem? The health problem is the gap between an acceptable or desirable health status and the current status. The problem description will help you keep the main goal of your social marketing effort in mind. The problem description clarifies what the public health problem is, who is affected, and what you propose to do to address it. To write your problem description, briefly answer these questions: (1) What should be occurring compared with what is occurring? (2) What are the causes? (3) Who is affected and to what degree? and (4) What could happen if the problem isn’t addressed? Use health status indicators to answer these questions. Health status indicators are data on outcomes or their causes (e.g., smoking rates). Health status indicator data is made available by numerous organizations. See this list of organizations or refer to other sources. Consider the causes (genetic or biological factors, psychological factors, behaviors, factors in the physical environment (e.g., a lack of transportation), and factors in the social environment (e.g., social support, or policy). Are these direct or indirect causes and which are the primary factors? Also, tease out which of these can change as a result of programmatic action? (e.g., a social marketing program can’t eliminate genetic risk factors) Be sure to address the following:

• Health disparities – This should be information regarding how the health topic is uniquely important to your target audience, including factors like causes of a condition and the condition's impact on health outcomes.

• Surveillance – What data exist? Is surveillance on your objective performed? Describe how data are collected about your topic.

• State and national progress – How has progress toward your objective occurred in Texas and nationally?


To develop a problem statement, a community-led coalition looked at available local data and found that teen pregnancy and rates of sexually transmitted infection (STI) were high among youth ages 15-19,

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especially in 15 Sacramento area zip codes. Also, the 1995 California Youth Risk Behavior Survey (conducted by the California Department of Education) estimated that 45% of high school students were sexually active. AIDS diagnoses among the city’s young adults suggested that infection indeed was occurring during teen years. Youth ages 14-18 residing in 15 zip codes in the Sacramento area are at unacceptably high risk of HIV infection.

Directions for Completion: This should be 2-3 paragraphs, and always use full sentences. Be sure to add citations and references to 2 or more sources.

Market Strategy

Target Audience: Describe the specific group that you want to reach with your communication. Determine which audiences are most affected by the problem, most likely to change their behavior, most feasible to reach and choose one to focus on. Also, determine if there are any key secondary audiences that may influence your primary target audience and could help bring about change. Avoid making audiences too broad, such as “all obese adults in the U.S.” There are so many varieties and differences between people within such a large group, making it difficult to effectively reach anyone. It is a better use of your resources to impact fewer in a more meaningful way. Feel free to break it down into two subgroups, such as Hispanic young adults who are prediabetic and those who may be at risk of developing diabetes. What do they value? How do they see themselves? What are their aspirations? Include a primary and secondary influencing audience if appropriate. Include any relevant audience research. In other words, why does this audience make sense for your topic? Are there higher rates or risks of your chosen health problem in this target audience? Does this target audience tend to have some control over your chosen health activity (e.g., doctors performing diabetes screenings)? Grouping the audience into meaningful segments will allow you to design efficient and effective strategies for communicating them. For each of the potential segments listed, identify the benefits of the target behavior valued, any potential competitive behaviors practiced and level of readiness to change. Your chosen audience should have perceived benefits that are easy to build into an exchange, competing behaviors against which you can "win" the largest number of people reachable by your communication medium (website), and those with the greatest readiness to change. Example:

The website will be providing targeted information for U.S.-based young men who have sex with men and are at risk of contracting an STI. This group of men faces stigma around their health and often find barriers when seeking healthcare and health information. Within this group are men who identify as gay or bisexual and men who identify as heterosexual or a similar sexual orientation and who may have sex with men during specific scenarios (e.g., during incarceration or during times of convenience). The messages to these groups will differ because men who do not identify as part of the LGBTQ+ community may not want to be grouped with those from that community and may want the information presented in less categorical ways. Information will also be provided for those who may have friends who are young MSW as they can influence their friends’ behaviors.

Directions for Completion: This can be a paragraph or bullet points under headings, but always use full sentences. Unlike the paragraph example, all facts should have in text citations, and there must be at least 1-2 references.

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Objectives: What do you want your target audiences to think, feel, or do after experiencing the communication? Identify the behavior that the audience segment finalist is currently doing; the audience and behavior are now a pair or couplet. Write the audience segment/behavior couplet in the form of a benefit exchange statement that spells out the exchange. To specify the behavior that you want them to do, ask yourself: (1) What behavior could be changed in the short-run (aka: after visiting a website)? (2) Is it likely to change with a little more incentive (such as gamification or a quiz on the website or a “wellness score” they can share on social media)? and (3) If audience members take the desired action, will it make a tangible difference in achieving my overall program goal? Generally, interventions can focus on changing policy through advocacy and community mobilization to reduce barriers to service, providing information about a service, communication about facts and benefits, or some combination of the aforementioned. When selecting interventions, remember that effective interventions lower barriers the audience faces in performing the desired behavior, increase barriers the audience faces in performing competing behavior(s), and/or offer valued benefits in exchange for performing the behavior. However, in this case, you will select up to 2 interventions that can be accomplished within your website, provide the "wants" of your priority target audience segment, reach most of the members of the priority segment(s), and combine to have the potential to bring about behavior change. The object is to find interventions that make the behavior "fun, easy, and popular" for members of the target audience. For each intervention that you selected, write a goal that sums up its role in impacting behavioral determinants. Try to go further and explain how each intervention is expected to work to support or influence the audience to adopt the new behavior. You can structure it as follows: [Who (specific audience segment)] will do [what (specific behavior)] [under what conditions (when and where)] in exchange for [what (benefits)]. Be sure to address recommendations – What are recommendations you have for your target population for your objective? Is there information they need to know? Is there a quiz or screening you can link to or embed on your website so they can find out more about themselves? Be sure to write your recommendations addressing how to overcome common barriers (see next section about barriers/obstacles). Examples:

1. The goal of the website that is providing peer-responses toward sex encounters will be to provide female college students with the skills in negotiating condom use with male sex partners in order to lower the barriers of fear and lack of skill in communicating personal wishes. That goal could be achieved by providing support, practice with various scenarios and modeling, using a couple of short videos demonstrating this.

2. After visiting the website and reading about the benefits of the State’s Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), parents of eligible uninsured children will call the toll-free number to apply for coverage for their children at a time and location that is convenient for them in exchange for the peace of mind that comes with being a good parent, providing for their children's needs, and ensuring their families' financial security.

Directions for Completion: This should describe the website as the vehicle for your intervention and how it will be effective in the form of a paragraph. Consider the following factors for your audience/behavior pair: risk, impact, and feasibility (behavioral, resource, social, political, etc.) Provide at least 2-3 sentences to describe your objective(s) and reasoning behind them. The reasoning should relate to both your target audience and your health topic.

Potential Obstacles: What are the potential obstacles – e.g., beliefs, cultural practices, pressure, financial needs, misinformation, etc. stand between your audience and the desired behavior?

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For example, when developing a website for African American women at risk of contracting HIV that has a goal of informing them about PrEP and how to ask their doctor for the medication, some obstacles include the following: some may lack of insurance, others may not have a doctor or may not trust their doctor due to bad experiences of their own or close loved ones, and some may feel embarrassment about bringing up such a topic to their healthcare provider. Some potential solutions the website could propose are lists of free clinics in the area or a clinic finder, info on how to seek a health advocate, how to advocate for oneself, or how to seek another opinion, and a third solution could be to provide some tips on how to discuss embarrassing topics during medical appointments. Directions for Completion: Provide at least 2-3 potential obstacles and proposed solutions. These can be bulleted lists or in paragraph form, but they should be written in full sentences.

Key promise: Marketing is based on the principle of exchange, the idea that people will bear certain costs to get something of value in return. Therefore, you should select one single benefit that will outweigh the obstacle in the mind of your target audience. You want to offer your audience an exchange that is easy and irresistible to accept, maximizes the benefits they will get for adopting a behavior, and minimizes any barriers that might deter them. Instead of asking "What does the target audience NEED (for their health)?" ask, "What does the target audience WANT?" Directions for Completion: Write this as one sentence in the following format: If I (desired behavior) then (immediate benefit).

Support Statements: This is the substantiation for the key promise. It provides reasons why the promise is true (Often this will begin with a ‘because.’), and it also provides a clear trade-off between behavior and benefits. Overcoming the barriers to performing a behavior and offering an exchange that will seem worthwhile to the target audience requires using all 4 Ps of marketing. See their definitions below:

• Product – A tangible object or service that can support or facilitate behavior change. Product examples include in-home blood pressure monitoring kits, improved HIV tests, journals to plan and track food intake, cessation counseling. In this case, you will be providing information/links to available resources because you do not have money or resources to send or provide physical resources.

• Price – The costs and barriers for your audience segment to carry out the desired behavior and then brainstorm interventions to diminish those barriers. For example, instituting a walking club sign-up sheet on the web, so that those who cite lack of support and lack of time as barriers to regular exercise can find others who support and share in their goals.

• Place – Where and when the audience will perform the behavior or access the new or adapted product/service. How can you make it convenient and pleasant (even more so than the competing behavior)? Examples include providing direct links to services in their area (e.g., county, state, city).

• Promotion – Determining the communication channels and activities that will best reach your audience to promote the benefits of the desired behavior. These are the types of messages are they more likely to pay attention to and special promotional items they would use (e.g., water bottles, refrigerator magnets, notepads)? Note that, in this case, everyone will be using the website as the communication channel.

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Figure 1. An example of the Price vs Benefit: Audience Member gives Audience Member gets Typically free with insurance or up to $10

Time scheduling an appointment, visiting a clinic, etc.

Momentary discomfort

An immunization

Freedom from illness in the future

Freedom to travel

Also, address other factors that can help us change course – What is a public health intervention that has been successful in reducing negative behavior/conditions or promoting positive behavior or good health status? If there is information on this: What programs in Texas exist to help meet the objectives? (Review the "Interventions and Resources" on the Healthy People webpage about your topic for a list of papers related to your topic.) Or describe how interventions haven't been successful historically and how more research needs to be done for your target population.

Directions for Completion: This should be 1-2 paragraphs. Be sure to add references to at least 1-2 sources and cite all facts and resources using  (Author, Year) in the paragraphs.

Other Considerations

Tone: What feeling should your communication have? Should it be authoritative, humorous, emotional, etc.? Directions for Completion: This can be a couple sentences or bullet points under headings, but always use full sentences.

Creative Considerations: Any other critical information for the writing/designing? Will the communication be in more than one language or dialect? Should it be tailored to a low literate audience? etc. Directions for Completion: This can be a couple sentences or bullet points under headings, but always use full sentences. NOTE: All sites should include color-blind testing and accessibility checking. Writing at an 8th grade reading level or below is highly recommended. If writing for non-health professionals (e.g., nurses and doctors), then writing at or below an 8th grade reading level is required. Otherwise, rationale is required.

  • Overall Directions
  • Problem Description
    • Example:
    • Directions for Completion:
  • Market Strategy
    • Target Audience:
      • Example:
      • Directions for Completion:
    • Objectives:
      • Examples:
      • Directions for Completion:
    • Potential Obstacles:
      • Directions for Completion:
    • Key promise:
      • Directions for Completion:
    • Support Statements:
      • Figure 1. An example of the Price vs Benefit:
      • Directions for Completion:
  • Other Considerations
    • Tone:
      • Directions for Completion:
    • Creative Considerations:
      • Directions for Completion:


Author: Peace Ossom-Williamson Last Updated: August 17, 2018

How to Complete the Data Worksheet This guide provides two examples for filling in the Data Worksheet. The examples provided here will

be about diabetes rates. It is highly recommended to read through both examples before you begin.

Example 1: This example will be adding data for a chart comparing the rate of adults diagnosed with diabetes over

recent years and a chart comparing the rate of male and female adults diagnosed with diabetes over the


1. Open the Data Worksheet file using the link in Blackboard.

2. Go to the Data Table (1) – Required tab at the bottom of the worksheet.

3. Replace the column headings (variable and number) with your variable names and numbers.

In this case, the CDC provides rate per 1,000 adults with diabetes by sex for years 1997-2016.

Therefore, we will use that to replace our data headings.

Author: Peace Ossom-Williamson Last Updated: August 17, 2018

4. Add in the data from your data source. (See data source example below)

In this case, we are only going to add the names of the groups under Sex and the estimated

rates of adults newly diagnosed with diabetes for 2011-2016 (circled in red above). We will use

“Total” to represent the total for that year not broken down by sex. Please ignore the standard

error and lower and upper confidence intervals (CI) provided beside each rate. We just want the


Author: Peace Ossom-Williamson Last Updated: August 17, 2018

5. Now that the data table is complete, go to the Description – Required tab at the bottom of the


6. Fill in the empty cell next to Source 1: (required) with the reference for the data source.

7. Then add in a statement on the charts you plan to make with that data.

Example 2: This example will be adding data for a chart comparing the percentage of Texas adults with diabetes in

2013 by race/ethnicity.

1. Open the Data Worksheet file using the link in Blackboard.

Author: Peace Ossom-Williamson Last Updated: August 17, 2018

2. Go to the Data Table (2) tab at the bottom of the worksheet.

3. Replace the column headings (variable and number) with your variable names and numbers.

In this case, the TX DSHS provides percentages of adults with diabetes by race for the year 2013.

Therefore, we will use that to replace our data headings.

Author: Peace Ossom-Williamson Last Updated: August 17, 2018

4. Add in the data from your data source. (See data source example below)

In this case, we are only going to add the names of the groups under Race/Ethnicity and the

percentage of adults who reported they have diabetes (circled in red above). Please ignore the

95% confidence intervals (CI) ranges provided beside each percent.

Author: Peace Ossom-Williamson Last Updated: August 17, 2018

5. Now that the data table is complete, go to the Description – Required tab at the bottom of the


6. Fill in the empty cell next to Source 2: (optional) with the reference for the data source.

7. Then add in a statement on the chart you plan to make with that data.



Message Outline

Problem Description

Market Strategy

Target Audience:


Potential Obstacles:

Key promise:

Support Statements:

Other Considerations


Creative Considerations:

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