Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Name five continuous,?five discrete,?and five categorical variables and identify which,?if any are dichotomous?and why?? - Wridemy Bestessaypapers

Name five continuous,?five discrete,?and five categorical variables and identify which,?if any are dichotomous?and why??

 

All the postings should be APA style.  Three paragraphs with three sentences 

Name five continuous, five discrete, and five categorical variables and identify which, if any are dichotomous and why? 

Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chapter 4

Research Problems, Research Questions, and Hypothese

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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

A research problem is perplexing or enigmatic situation that a researcher wants to address through disciplined inquiry.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

True

A research problem is perplexing or enigmatic situation that a researcher wants to address through disciplined inquiry.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

What is a hypothesis?

A. An enigmatic, perplexing, or troubling condition

A statement articulating the research problem and indicating the need for a study

The specific queries the researcher wants to answer in addressing the research problem

The researcher’s predictions about relationships among variables

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Answer

D

Research problem: an enigmatic, perplexing, or troubling condition

Problem statement: a statement articulating the research problem and indicating the need for a study

Research questions: the specific queries the researcher wants to answer in addressing the research problem

Hypotheses: the researcher’s predictions about relationships among variables

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Basic Terminology

Research problem

An enigmatic, perplexing, or troubling condition

Problem statement

A statement articulating the research problem and indicating the need for a study

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Basic Terminology (cont.)

Research questions

The specific queries the researcher wants to answer in addressing the research problem

Hypotheses

The researcher’s predictions about relationships among variables

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Basic Terminology (cont.)

Statement of purpose

The researcher’s summary of the overall study goal

Research aims or objectives

The specific accomplishments to be achieved by conducting the study

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Sources of Research Problems

  • Experience and clinical fieldwork
  • Nursing literature
  • Quality improvement initiatives
  • Social issues
  • Theory
  • External suggestions

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Developing and Refining Research Problems

  • Selecting a broad topic area (e.g., patient compliance, caregiver stress)
  • Narrowing the topic—asking questions to help focus the inquiry

Examples:

  • What is going on with . . .?
  • What factors contribute to . . .?

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Evaluating Research Problems

  • Significance of the problem
  • Researchability of the problem
  • Feasibility of addressing the problem (e.g., time, resources, ethics, cooperation of others)
  • Interest to the researcher

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Problem Statements

  • Should identify the nature, context, and significance of the problem being addressed
  • Should be broad enough to include central concerns
  • Should be narrow enough to serve as a guide to study design

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Statement of Purpose—Quantitative Studies

  • Identifies key study variables
  • Identifies possible relationships among variables
  • Indicates the population of interest
  • Suggests, through use of verbs, the nature of the inquiry (e.g., to test…, to compare…, to evaluate…)

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Statement of Purpose—Qualitative Studies

  • Identifies the central phenomenon
  • Indicates the research tradition (e.g., grounded theory, ethnography)
  • Indicates the group, community, or setting of interest
  • Suggests, through use of verbs, the nature of the inquiry (e.g., to describe . . ., to discover . . ., to explore . . .)

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Question

Statements of purpose in qualitative studies may “encode” the tradition of inquiry, not only through the researcher’s choice of verbs but also through the use of “buzzwords” associated with those traditions. What is a grounded theory?

Process questions

Meaning questions

Cultural description questions

Experience questions

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Answer

A

Grounded theory: process questions

Phenomenology: meaning questions

Ethnography: cultural description questions

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Research Questions

  • Are sometimes direct rewordings of statements of purpose, worded as questions
  • Are sometimes used to clarify or lend specificity to the purpose statement
  • In quantitative studies, pose queries about the relationships among variables

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Research Questions (cont.)

  • In qualitative studies, pose queries linked to the research tradition:

Grounded theory: process questions

Phenomenology: meaning questions

Ethnography: cultural description questions

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Question

Tell whether the statement is true or false:

A simple hypothesis expresses a predicted relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

True

A simple hypothesis expresses a predicted relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Hypothesis

  • States a prediction
  • Must always involve at least two variables
  • Must suggest a predicted relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable
  • Must contain terms that indicate a relationship (e.g., more than, different from, associated with)

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Simple versus Complex Hypotheses

Simple hypothesis

Expresses a predicted relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable

Complex hypothesis

States a predicted relationship between two or more independent variables and/or two or more dependent variables

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Directional versus Nondirectional Hypotheses

Directional hypothesis

Predicts the direction of a relationship

Nondirectional hypothesis

Predicts the existence of a relationship, not its direction

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Research versus Null Hypotheses

Research hypothesis

States the actual prediction of a relationship

Statistical or null hypothesis

Expresses the absence of a relationship (used only in statistical testing)

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Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chapter 3

Key Concepts and Steps in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

A variable is a characteristic or quality that takes on different values.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

True

A variable is a characteristic or quality that takes on different values.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

The dependent variable is the presumed cause of the problem.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

The independent variable is the presumed cause (of a dependent variable). The dependent variable is the presumed effect (of an independent variable).

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Variable

A characteristic or quality that takes on different values, that is, something that varies from one person to the next

Examples:

  • Blood type
  • Weight
  • Length of stay in hospital

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Types of Variables

  • Continuous (e.g., height)
  • Discrete (e.g., number of children)
  • Categorical (e.g., marital status)
  • Dichotomous (e.g., gender)
  • Attribute variable versus active variable

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Types of Variables (cont.)

Independent variable—the presumed cause (of a dependent variable)

Dependent variable—the presumed effect (of an independent variable)

Example: Smoking (IV)  Lung cancer (DV)

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Conceptual definition is the operations a researcher must perform to collect the desired information.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

Conceptual definition: the abstract or theoretical meaning of a concept being studied

Operational definition: the operations (measurements) a researcher must perform to collect the desired information

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Definitions of Concepts and Variables

  • Conceptual definition: the abstract or theoretical meaning of a concept being studied
  • Operational definition: the operations (measurements) a researcher must perform to collect the desired information

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Relationships

Relationship: a bond or connection between variables

  • Cause-and-effect (causal) relationship (e.g., cigarette smoking and lung cancer)
  • Functional (associative) relationship (e.g., gender and life expectancy)

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Major Classes of Quantitative Research

Experimental research

Researchers actively introduce an intervention or treatment.

Nonexperimental research

Researchers collect data without intervening or introducing treatments.

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Major Research Traditions in Qualitative Research

  • Grounded theory research
  • Phenomenological research
  • Ethnographic research

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Question

What is the first phase in a quantitative study?

A. Conceptual phase

B. Design and planning phase

C. Empirical phase

D. Analytic phase

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

A

The phases in a quantitative study are:

  • Phase 1: Conceptual phase
  • Phase 2: Design and planning phase
  • Phase 3: Empirical phase
  • Phase 4: Analytic phase
  • Phase 5: Dissemination phase

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Phases in a Quantitative Study

  • Phase 1: Conceptual phase
  • Phase 2: Design and planning phase
  • Phase 3: Empirical phase
  • Phase 4: Analytic phase
  • Phase 5: Dissemination phase

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Major Steps in a Quantitative Study

  • Phase 1: Conceptual phase

Formulating the problem

Reviewing related literature

Undertaking clinical fieldwork

Defining the framework and developing
conceptual definitions

Formulating hypotheses

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Major Steps in a Quantitative Study (cont.)

Selecting a research design

Developing intervention protocols

Identifying the population

Designing the sample plan

Phase 2: Design and planning phase

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Major Steps in a Quantitative Study (cont.)

  • Phase 2: Design and planning phase (cont.)

Specifying methods to measure research
variables and collect data

Developing methods to protect
human/animal rights

Finalizing and reviewing the research plan

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Major Steps in a Quantitative Study (cont.)

  • Phase 3: Empirical phase

Collecting data

Preparing data for analysis

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