21 Jan Many people were inspired by the abolition of slavery to demand things that they had previously considered impossible. This meant that after the Civil War many new social movements emerg
Use Susan B Anthony for activist. Please read over instructions. It must be in first person as if I am her.
Historical Background: Many people were inspired by the abolition of slavery to demand things that they had previously considered impossible. This meant that after the Civil War many new social movements emerged and there were some attempts to bring them together, but by 1870 those fighting for justice in different movements remained divided.
The fundamental question for these historical actors was: how can we achieve fuller equality for the people we are fighting for? You will see that the characters felt passionately about women and African Americans, but as you know, if you drill deeper, different interests emerge within each group. Each reformer had to decide: should I work for women's rights, African Americans' rights, or both? How does labor and class factor into my goals?
Setting: The year is 1872. You have just arrived at the home of a wealthy philanthropist. He supports many of the social movements that have coalesced in the years following the Civil War and has invited various people active in these movements to his home for a mixer. You may have met some of these people before, but most are strangers to you. You are eager to chat with these folks and learn about how their interests and goals overlap with yours – or don’t. Could some of these people become valued allies? Or will they see you as competing for resources and sympathy? Some might believe that your message and goals could hurt their own chances for success. At this mixer, you must present your own goals and ideas and learn about those of others. Again, there might be important allies at this event. Perhaps the host might even donate money to your cause! Therefore, you want to put your best foot forward and have your pitch ready.
Purpose: We are going to meet many of the people involved in these movements to understand not only what brought them together after the Civil War, but also the conflicts that ultimately kept them apart. You'll build your awareness of these nuances, as well as practice your research and analysis skills by gleaning information from your primary source based on the example in the Using Primary Sources in Your Research page.
PART I: Find your Person, Analyze your Document, and Write Your Introduction
1. FIND YOUR PERSON. *Disregard the part about instructor choosing your person–choose whomever you like. 🙂 But you must add minimally one direct, cited quote for each paragraph of content, min. 2-3 quotes to pass. You (and each of your classmates) have been randomly or alphabetically assigned the role of a real historical figure – see this page to see their brief bio and a primary source associated with them. Read this information closely in order to "play" them in the Discussion.
2. PRIMARY DOCUMENT STUDY. Analyze the primary source associated with your character in their bio to see what persuasive arguments, strategies, or quotes they may have used to further their movement – you'll put these to use in your elevator pitch!
· To do this: refer to the "Using Your Document for the Reconstruction Mixer outline" on the "Using Primary Sources in Your Research" page to help you glean helpful information and/or relevant quotations from your individual's primary source.
· Using the "An Example" part of this page as a model, answer each of these questions about your identified primary source.
· Remember, your source may not be directly about your person, but it will be related to their cause. Write out your responses to these questions – they will help you write your introduction and pitch in the next step.
3. WRITE YOUR INTRODUCTION AND YOUR PITCH FOR YOUR CAUSE. Write 2-3 paragraphs introducing yourself (as your character) and your cause at the mixer.
· Your introduction should start by sharing about yourself (your character) in the first person, so readers will know who this is, like a quick bio or background ("My name is….and I worked for….in 1912 I ….etc.).
· Next, still in the first person, comes your character's "elevator pitch" for your cause to your potential benefactor. Briefly tell them why they should support your cause and give you money/help , using ONLY information you've gleaned from analyzing your primary source (not the textbook, introductory bio, or any other sources). Use your responses, especially to the "Try to Make Sense of it" and "Use it as Historical Evidence" parts, to make a better pitch for your cause.
The entirety of your written post should answer the following questions – please focus on post-Civil War advocacy activities/qualities, NOT pre-Civil War (i.e., don't focus on their abolitionist history):
· What are you known for or what is your importance in the Reconstruction?
· What movement(s) are you involved with, and what are their ideals and goals?
· Why is this movement important at this particular time?
· What one short quote(s) embodies your present ethos and goals?
· What important dates, events, accomplishments/defeats are key to understanding your goals and ideas?
· What strengths do you possess and/or difficulties do you face?
Revised Units/Unit 1/Unit 1 Reconstruction.html
Revised Units/Unit 1/Reconstruction Characters and Key Terms.html
Unit 1: Reconstruction
Reconstruction: Characters and Key Terms
Keep this list of major characters in mind in order to follow the action more easily. Click on each person or Key Term to see his/her/its corresponding description and/or definition. You can also click the "Show All" button to expand all characters and descriptions at once. 16th President of the United States who wanted to be lenient towards the South after the Civil War and offered the 10% Plan for Reconstruction. 17th President of the United States who clashed with Congressional Republicans over Reconstruction and became the first President to be impeached by Congress. U.S. Army General who was appointed by President Andrew Johnson to head the Freedman's Bureau to help rehabilitate the former slaves after the Civil War. Abolitionist and women's rights activist who played a pivotal role in the women's suffrage movement helping to found the National Woman Suffrage Association. Social activist and suffrage leader who was instrumental in orchestrating the first women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Revels, a free person of color, was the first African-American to serve in Congress, representing Mississippi. Long, born a slave, was elected to fill a vacancy in Congress at the same time as Revels, representing Georgia.Elected President after the controversial and disputed election of 1876, which saw the end of Reconstruction due to a possible informal agreement known as the Compromise of 1877. Faction of the Republican Party that pushed for a complete abolition of slavery before the Civil War and full civil rights for African-Americans after the war.
The period following the Civil War where attempts were made to reintegrate the eleven former Confederate States, as well as afford the former slaves the freedoms they had been denied under slavery. Abraham Lincoln's Reconstruction plan which said that an individual southern state could be readmitted into the Union once ten percent of the voters (from the 1860 presidential election) swore an oath of allegiance to the United States. Radical Republican Reconstruction plan which required fifty percent of a state's white males take a loyalty oath that they never supported the Confederacy to be readmitted to the United States. At the end of the Civil War and the beginning of Reconstruction, Radical Republicans who controlled Congress, opposed President Abraham Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction because they felt it was too lenient towards the South. One of their plans called for an Ironclad Oath along with the Wade-Davis Bill. This oath would make it extremely difficult for former Confederate officials and others to regain power. It required all voters and officials to swear they never supported the Confederacy.This was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments, and was ratified by the requisite number of states on December 6, 1865. It abolished slavery and indentured servitude in the United States. Several states did not ratify it until the 20th Century, the last being Mississippi in 1995. President Andrew Johnson's plan for Reconstruction was almost exactly the same as Abraham Lincoln's plan. If you took a loyalty oath, you would be granted a pardon, unless you were a high ranking Confederate official possessing over $20,000 in property. A state could not be readmitted to the Union until they abolished slavery, and they also had to repeal their ordinance of secession.This committee was established by Congress in December, 1865. Its purpose was to investigate and report on the conditions in the former Confederate States. Because of the testimony, Congress would propose laws which would eventually become the 14th and 15th Amendments, helping the former slaves gain civil, equal and voting rights.Officially the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Land, this agency of the government was established by Congress in 1865 at the beginning of Reconstruction to help the millions of former slaves after the Civil War. It worked in several areas, providing food, medical supplies, housing as well as general relief, while also building schools and providing other educational opportunities. They provided legal assistance and attempted to distribute land to former slaves. The program was successful in some areas, but President Johnson opposed areas, and vetoed measures, and it gradually lost support in the North.These codes, which were similar to Slave Codes, were adopted in former Confederate states beginning in late 1865 to limit the freedoms of the former slaves. These codes placed restrictions on the types of jobs African-Americans could do, as well as where they could live, in many instances forcing them to sign yearly labor contracts that kept them on the same farms or plantations they worked on as slaves. The codes restricted all freedoms, including stripping the freedmen of their right to sue in court or enter into legal contracts. They also restricted travel, marriage, the right to own or carry firearms as well as others. The second of the Reconstruction Amendments, ratified in 1868, this addition to the Constitution guaranteed citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, including former slaves. It also aimed to grant civil rights to African-Americans, but many of these rights were not truly felt for close to 100 years.</panel topic>These acts, passed in 1867 and 1868 over President Johnson's veto, dealt with the readmission to the United States of the former Confederate States. The acts defined the makeup of state constitutions, which had to include the 14th Amendment, as well as dealing with military occupation in the South. Georgia was the last state readmitted in 1870 (after it had been expelled for removing black legislators from its legislature.The 15th Amendment granted African-American men the right to vote by making it illegal to prevent someone from voting based on their race, color or previous condition as a slave. Southern states went around this amendment by creating poll taxes and literacy tests, as well as violence and intimidation, which kept African-Americans from either registering to vote, or voting in large numbers until the late 1960s. Poor whites were able to get around poll taxes and literacy tests through grandfather clauses and other exemptions.This organization was founded in 1869 by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. They were considered a radical organization at the time, and even came into conflict with other suffrage groups.Union Leagues were secretive societies created, first during the Civil War in the North to promote pro-Union policies and support for President Lincoln, and after the war in the South as arms of the Republican Party to promote their policies and politics. They helped register black voters, as well as tried to protect them from the Ku Klux Klan and other secret societies created in the South to oppose African-American rights. In an effort to both find a labor system to replace slavery as well as keep the newly freed slaves as close to slavery as possible, the South turned to sharecropping. This system was a way for the former slaves (as well as poor whites) to earn money or a portion of the crops they grew while living on someone else's land. In many instances this system turned into debt peonage or debt slavery where the sharecroppers were tied to the land, usually the same land they had lived and worked on as slaves, through debt as they were rarely able to pay off what they borrowed with their meager earnings.The Klan was one of several secret societies that appeared in the South after the Civil War. It was founded by six former Confederate soldiers in 1866, and initially was a fraternal organization. It became a "national" organization in 1867 when they held a meeting in Nashville, Tennessee and selected former Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest as their first Grand Wizard. The Klan took aim at African-Americans and whites, especially Republicans in the South, terrorizing and murdering them in order to keep them as second class citizens in a position as close to slavery as possible.This was one of the most controversial Presidential Elections in American history. Samuel Tilden, the Democratic candidate from New York received 184 Electoral Votes, while Rutherford B. Hayes, the Republican from Ohio, received 165. In 1876, you needed 185 to win, but three Southern States, Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina, all submitted returns saying both candidates had won. These states also were still being governed under Reconstruction, and had the United States Military present within their borders. The outcome of the election would not be known for months.This was the informal and unwritten deal which resolved the Election of 1876 and brought Reconstruction to an end. In return for Hayes being awarded the disputed electoral votes, and the Presidency, all U.S. military forces were to be removed from the South, Hayes was to appoint one Southerner to his Cabinet, another Transcontinental Railroad would be constructed in the South, financial aid to rebuild the region, as well as assurances that the North would not interfere with Southern treatment of the former slaves.
Revised Units/Unit 1/An Introduction to Historical Primary Sources.html
Unit 1: Reconstruction
Tapping the Source: Using Primary Sources in Your Research
What are Primary Sources?
Watch the following short video "What is a Primary Source?" to refresh your knowledge:
The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877
Figure 16.1 In this political cartoon by Thomas Nast, which appeared in Harper’s Weekly in October 1874, the “White League” shakes hands with the Ku Klux Klan over a shield that shows a couple weeping over a baby. In the background, a schoolhouse burns, and a lynched freedman is shown hanging from a tree. Above the shield, which is labeled “Worse than Slavery,” the text reads, “The Union as It Was: This Is a White Man’s Government.”
16.1 Restoring the Union
16.2 Congress and the Remaking of the South, 1865–1866
16.3 Radical Reconstruction, 1867–1872
16.4 The Collapse of Reconstruction
Few times in U.S. history have been as turbulent and transformative as the Civil War and the twelve years that followed. Between 1865 and 1877, one president was murdered and another impeached. The Constitution underwent major revision with the addition of three amendments. The effort to impose Union control and create equality in the defeated South ignited a fierce backlash as various terrorist and vigilante organizations, most notably the Ku Klux Klan, battled to maintain a pre–Civil War society in which whites held complete power. These groups unleashed a wave of violence, including lynching and arson, aimed at freed blacks and their white supporters. Historians refer to this era as Reconstruction, when an effort to remake the South faltered and ultimately failed.
The above political cartoon (Figure 16.1) expresses the anguish many Americans felt in the decade after the Civil War. The South, which had experienced catastrophic losses during the conflict, was reduced to political dependence and economic destitution. This humiliating condition led many southern whites to vigorously contest Union efforts to transform the South’s racial, economic, and social landscape. Supporters of equality grew increasingly dismayed at Reconstruction’s failure to undo the old system, which further compounded the staggering regional and racial inequalities in the United States.
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16.1 Restoring the Union
By the end of this section, you will be able to: • Describe Lincoln’s plan to restore the Union at the end of the Civil War • Discuss the tenets of Radical Republicanism • Analyze the success or failure of the Thirteenth Amendment
The end of the Civil War saw the beginning of the Reconstruction era, when former rebel Southern states were integrated back into the Union. President Lincoln moved quickly to achieve the war’s ultimate goal: reunification of the country. He proposed a generous and non-punitive plan to return the former Confederate states speedily to the United States, but some Republicans in Congress protested, considering the president’s plan too lenient to the rebel states that had torn the country apart. The greatest flaw of Lincoln’s plan, according to this view, was that it appeared to forgive traitors instead of guaranteeing civil rights to former slaves. President Lincoln oversaw the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery, but he did not live to see its ratification.
THE PRESIDENT’S PLAN
From the outset of the rebellion in 1861, Lincoln’s overriding goal had been to bring the Southern states quickly back into the fold in order to restore the Union (Figure 16.3). In early December 1863, the president began the process of reunification by unveiling a three-part proposal known as the ten percent plan that outlined how the states would return. The ten percent plan gave a general pardon to all Southerners except high-ranking Confederate government and military leaders; required 10 percent of the 1860 voting population in the former rebel states to take a binding oath of future allegiance to the United States and the emancipation of slaves; and declared that once those voters took those oaths, the restored Confederate states would draft new state constitutions.
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Figure 16.3 Thomas Le Mere took this albumen silver print (a) of Abraham Lincoln in April 1863. Le Mere thought a standing pose of Lincoln would be popular. In this political cartoon from 1865 (b), Lincoln and his vice president, Andrew Johnson, endeavor to sew together the torn pieces of the Union.
Lincoln hoped that the leniency of the plan—90 percent of the 1860 voters did not have to swear allegiance to the Union or to emancipation—would bring about a quick and long-anticipated resolution and make emancipation more acceptable everywhere. This approach appealed to some in the moderate wing of the Republican Party, which wanted to put the nation on a speedy course toward reconciliation. However, the proposal instantly drew fire from a larger faction of Republicans in Congress who did not want to deal moderately with the South. These members of Congress, known as Radical Republicans, wanted to remake the South and punish the rebels. Radical Republicans insisted on harsh terms for the defeated Confederacy and protection for former slaves, going far beyond what the president proposed.
In February 1864, two of the Radical Republicans, Ohio senator Benjamin Wade and Maryland representative Henry Winter Davis, answered Lincoln with a proposal of their own. Among other stipulations, the Wade-Davis Bill called for a majority of voters and government officials in Confederate states to take an oath, called the Ironclad Oath, swearing that they had never supported the Confederacy or made war against the United States. Those who could not or would not take the oath would be unable to take part in the future political life of the South. Congress assented to the Wade-Davis Bill, and it went to Lincoln for his signature. The president refused to sign, using the pocket veto (that is, taking no action) to kill the bill. Lincoln understood that no Southern state would have met the criteria of the Wade-Davis Bill, and its passage would simply have delayed the reconstruction of the South.
THE THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT
Despite the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, the legal status of slaves and the institution of slavery remained unresolved. To deal with the remaining uncertainties, the Republican Party made the abolition of slavery a top priority by including the issue in its 1864 party platform. The platform read: “That as slavery was the cause, and now constitutes the strength of this Rebellion, and as it must be, always and everywhere, hostile to the principles of Republican Government, justice and the National safety demand its utter and complete extirpation from the soil of the Republic; and that, while we uphold and maintain the acts and proclamations by which the Government, in its own defense, has aimed a deathblow at this gigantic evil, we are in favor, furthermore, of such an amendment to the Constitution, to be made by the
Chapter 16 | The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877 453
people in conformity with its provisions, as shall terminate and forever prohibit the existence of Slavery within the limits of the jurisdiction of the United States.” The platform left no doubt about the intention to abolish slavery.
The president, along with the Radical Republicans, made good on this campaign promise in 1864 and 1865. A proposed constitutional amendment passed the Senate in April 1864, and the House of Representatives concurred in January 1865. The amendment then made its way to the states, where it swiftly gained the necessary support, including in the South. In December 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment was officially ratified and added to the Constitution. The first amendment added to the Constitution since 1804, it overturned a centuries-old practice by permanently abolishing slavery.
Explore a comprehensive collection of documents, images, and ephemera related to Abraham Lincoln (http://openstaxcollege.org/l/15Lincoln) on the Library of Congress website.
President Lincoln never saw the final ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment. On April 14, 1865, the Confederate supporter and well-known actor John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln while he was attending a play, Our American Cousin, at Ford’s Theater in Washington. The president died the next day (Figure 16.4). Booth had steadfastly defended the Confederacy and white supremacy, and his act was part of a larger conspiracy to eliminate the heads of the Union government and keep the Confederate fight going. One of Booth’s associates stabbed and wounded Secretary of State William Seward the night of the assassination. Another associate abandoned the planned assassination of Vice President Andrew Johnson at the last moment. Although Booth initially escaped capture, Union troops shot and killed him on April 26, 1865, in a Maryland barn. Eight other conspirators were convicted by a military tribunal for participating in the conspiracy, and four were hanged. Lincoln’s death earned him immediate martyrdom, and hysteria spread throughout the North. To many Northerners, the assassination suggested an even greater conspiracy than what was revealed, masterminded by the unrepentant leaders of the defeated Confederacy. Militant Republicans would use and exploit this fear relentlessly in the ensuing months.
Click and Explore
454 Chapter 16 | The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877
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Figure 16.4 In The Assassination of President Lincoln (1865), by Currier and Ives, John Wilkes Booth shoots Lincoln in the back of the head as he sits in the theater box with his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, and their guests, Major Henry R. Rathbone and Clara Harris.
ANDREW JOHNSON AND THE BATTLE OVER RECONSTRUCTION
Lincoln’s assassination elevated Vice President Andrew Johnson, a Democrat, to the presidency. Johnson had come from very humble origins. Born into extreme poverty in North Carolina and having never attended school, Johnson was the picture of a self-made man. His wife had taught him how to read and he had worked as a tailor, a trade he had been apprenticed to as a child. In Tennessee, where he had moved as a young man, he gradually rose up the political ladder, earning a reputation for being a skillful stump speaker and a staunch defender of poor southerners. He was elected to serve in the House of Representatives in the 1840s, became governor of Tennessee the following decade, and then was elected a U.S. senator just a few years before the country descended into war. When Tennessee seceded, Johnson remained loyal to the Union and stayed in the Senate. As Union troops marched on his home state of North Carolina, Lincoln appointed him governor of the then-occupied state of Tennessee, where he served until being nominated by the Republicans to run for vice president on a Lincoln ticket. The nomination of Johnson, a Democrat and a slaveholding southerner, was a pragmatic decision made by concerned Republicans. It was important for them to show that the party supported all loyal men, regardless of their origin or political persuasion. Johnson appeared an ideal choice, because his nomination would bring with it the support of both pro-Southern elements and the War Democrats who rejected the conciliatory stance of the Copperheads, the northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War.
Unexpectedly elevated to the presidency in 1865, this formerly impoverished tailor’s apprentice and unwavering antagonist of the wealthy southern planter class now found himself tasked with administering the restoration of a destroyed South. Lincoln’s position as president had been that the secession of the Southern states was never legal; that is, they had not succeeded in leaving the Union, therefore they still had certain rights to self-government as states. In keeping with Lincoln’s plan, Johnson desired to quickly reincorporate the South back into the Union on lenient terms and heal the wounds of the nation. This position angered many in his own party. The northern Radical Republican plan for Reconstruction looked to overturn southern society and specifically aimed at ending the plantation system. President Johnson quickly disappointed Radical Republicans when he rejected their idea that the federal government could provide voting rights for freed slaves. The initial disagreements between the president and the Radical Republicans over how best to deal with the defeated South set the stage for further conflict.
In fact, President Johnson’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction in May 1865 provided sweeping “amnesty and pardon” to rebellious Southerners. It returned to them their property, with the notable exception of their former slaves, and it asked only that they affirm their support for the Constitution
Chapter 16 | The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877 455
of the United States. Those Southerners exempted from this amnesty included the Confederate political leadership, high-ranking military officers, and persons with taxable property worth more than $20,000. The inclusion of this last category was specifically designed to make it clear to the southern planter class that they had a unique responsibility for the outbreak of hostilities. But it also satisfied Johnson’s desire to exact vengeance on a class of people he had fought politically for much of his life. For this class of wealthy Southerners to regain their rights, they would have to swallow their pride and request a personal pardon from Johnson himself.
For the Southern states, the requirements for readmission to the Union were also fairly straightforward. States were required to hold individual state conventions where they would repeal the ordinances of secession and ratify the Thirteenth Amendme
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