Chat with us, powered by LiveChat In this Case Study, you will apply the Statesmanship model discussed in Module 1: Week 1 to a real, specific public administration context. In other words, choose an organization th - Wridemy Bestessaypapers

In this Case Study, you will apply the Statesmanship model discussed in Module 1: Week 1 to a real, specific public administration context. In other words, choose an organization th

  5 SCHOLARY SOURCE, APA FORMAT Paper should be 4-5 double-spaced pages of content in length (this does not include title page or reference pages).

Overview

In this Case Study, you will apply the Statesmanship model discussed in Module 1: Week 1 to a real, specific public administration context. In other words, choose an organization that is dealing with organizational change, design, and structure. Describe what happened in as much detail as necessary. Next, apply the statesmanship model discussed Module 1: Week 1 to this situation. The overarching idea of statesmanship is the call for moral character. In the context of this assignment, how can this model be applied to the situation at hand? 

You will apply the Statesmanship model needed to deal with the organizational change discussed. Remember to also discuss the importance of the following: 

· Noncentralization

· Covenant 

· Systems theory and environmental awareness

· Responsiveness to political forces and constituent management

· Effective crisis management and statecraft

Instructions

· Case Study scenarios must be taken from documented (published) public administration contexts; no hypotheticals are allowed.  

o Students can focus on one public administration organization or may refer to a particular situation (well-documented by the research) that public administrators faced during an actual event(s).

· All ideas shared by student should be supported with sound reason and citations from the required readings and presentations, and additional resources. 

· Paper should be 4-5 double-spaced pages of content in length (this does not include title page or reference pages).

o Paper should be in current APA format.

o Headings should be included and must conform to the content categories listed (i.e., Noncentralization, Covenant, Systems theory, and environmental awareness, etc.).

· 5 additional scholarly sources must be used. They need to be scholarly and provide relevant public administration theory and practices. 

· All required reading and presentations from the assigned reading must be cited.

· Integrate biblical principles within the analysis of the paper.

· Unacceptable sources (Wikipedia, dictionaries, encyclopedias, and websites).

· Acceptable sources (scholarly articles published within the last eight years).

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

The effectiveness and specificity of change management in a public organization: Transformational leadership and a bureaucratic organizational structure

Author links open overlay panel Jorisvan der Voet

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2013.10.001 Get rights and content

Highlights

This study examines the effectiveness and specificity of change management in public organizations.

Employee willingness to change is related to both planned and emergent change approaches.

Transformational leadership behavior contributes little to the effectiveness of planned change.

Transformational leadership behavior is crucial for employee support in emergent change.

Bureaucratic organizational structures limit the effects of transformational leadership.

Abstract

There is an extensive private sector literature on organizational change management. However, recent studies have suggested that the specific context of public organizations may have consequences for the management organizational change. This study examines to what extent different change approaches and transformational leadership of direct supervisors contribute to the effective implementation of organizational change in public organizations, and to what extent the bureaucratic structure of public organizations makes the implementation of organizational change s3pecific. The implementation of an organizational change in a Dutch public organization is studied using quantitative methods and techniques. The results indicate that bureaucratic organizations may effectively implement organizational change with both planned and emergent change approaches. The contribution of transformational leadership depends on the type of change approach and organizational structure. Transformational leadership behavior of direct supervisors contributes little to planned processes of change, but is crucial in emergent processes of change in a non-bureaucratic context. Although the literature on change management mostly emphasizes the leadership of senior managers, the leadership role of direct supervisors should not be overlooked during organizational change in public organizations.

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The effectiveness and specificity of change management in a public organization: Transformational leadership and a bureaucratic organizational structure

Author links open overlay panelJorisvan der Voet

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2013.10.001 Get rights and content

Highlights

This study examines the effectiveness and specificity of change management in public organizations.

Employee willingness to change is related to both planned and emergent change approaches.

Transformational leadership behavior contributes little to the effectiveness of planned change.

Transformational leadership behavior is crucial for employee support in emergent change.

Bureaucratic organizational structures limit the effects of transformational leadership.

Abstract

There is an extensive private sector literature on organizational change management. However, recent studies have suggested that the specific context of public organizations may have consequences for the management organizational change. This study examines to what extent different change approaches and transformational leadership of direct supervisors contribute to the effective implementation of organizational change in public organizations, and to what extent the bureaucratic structure of public organizations makes the implementation of organizational change s3pecific. The implementation of an organizational change in a Dutch public organization is studied using quantitative methods and techniques. The results indicate that bureaucratic organizations may effectively implement organizational change with both planned and emergent change approaches. The contribution of transformational leadership depends on the type of change approach and organizational structure. Transformational leadership behavior of direct supervisors contributes little to planned processes of change, but is crucial in emergent processes of change in a non-bureaucratic context. Although the literature on change management mostly emphasizes the leadership of senior managers, the leadership role of direct supervisors should not be overlooked during organizational change in public organizations.

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Keywords

Change management

Leadership

Organizational structure

Public sector organizations

Introduction

There is an extensive private sector literature on organizational change management ( Armenakis and Bedeian, 1999, Beer and Nohria, 2000, Burke, 2010, Self et al., 2007). However, recent studies have questioned to what extent private sector change management techniques are applicable in a public sector context, and have suggested that the differences between the public and private sector could play a role ( Boyne, 2006, Karp and Helgø, 2008, Kickert, 2013, Klarner et al., 2008, Rusaw, 2007). Several authors have suggested that the specific context of public organizations may have consequences for the management organizational change ( Burnes et al., 2009, Coram and Burnes, 2001, Isett et al., 2012, McNulty and Ferlie, 2004), but there is little empirical evidence concerning this issue. A recent literature review of research on change management in the public sector by Kuipers et al. (2013) found that most studies emphasize the content and context of change, instead of the implementation process. Moreover, Kuipers et al. conclude that many studies did not address the outcomes or success of a change intervention. Although there is substantial evidence that the implementation of organization change often fails ( Beer and Nohria, 2000 , Burke, 2010 , Burnes, 2011, Kotter, 1996), there is relatively little evidence about how organizational change can be effectively managed in the public sector ( Fernandez and Pitts, 2007, Kickert, 2010).

This study aims to contribute to research on change management in public organizations by addressing the effectiveness and specificity of change management in public organizations. First, this study aims to identify what factors contribute to the effective implementation of organizational change in the public sector. As the implementation of organizational change ultimately depends on the support of employees ( Bartunek et al., 2006, Herold et al., 2007). The concept of employee willingness to change is used to assess the degree to which employees support the implementation of change ( Metselaar, 1997). Following the emphasis on the role of leadership in the change management literature (e.g. Gill, 2002, Higgs and Rowland, 2005, Higgs and Rowland, 2010, Karp and Helgø, 2008 , Kotter, 1996 ), this study examines to what extent leadership contributes to employee willingness to change in the public sector. Attention is focused on the transformational leadership behavior of direct supervisors. In addition, this study accounts for the effects of different change management approaches that are outlined in the literature on change management ( Beer and Nohria, 2000 , By, 2005). We refer to these approaches as planned and emergent change (cf. Bamford and Forrester, 2003, Burnes, 1996, Burnes, 2004, Kickert, 2010 ).

Secondly, this study aims to examine to what extent the specific nature of public organizations makes the implementation of organizational change specific. A detailed literature exists about the specific characteristics of the objectives, environment, organizational structure of public sector organizations and the characteristics of their employees (e.g. Allison, 1979, Boyne, 2002, Farnham and Horton, 1996, Rainey, 2003, Rainey and Bozeman, 2000). In this study, attention is focused on the organizational structure. Public organizations typically operate under a strict legal framework and are confronted with high demands for accountability ( Rainey, 2003 ). Because of this, public organizations tend to avoid risks by formalizing the operations and centralizing decision-making in the organization ( Mintzberg, 1979). The organizational structure of public organizations is therefore generally said to be relatively bureaucratic ( Boyne, 2002 , Farnham and Horton, 1996 ). The organizational structure has traditionally been highlighted as a determinant of how organizations change ( Burns and Stalker, 1961, Mintzberg, 1979 ). Moreover, Coram and Burnes (2001) and Isett et al. (2012) have argued that the bureaucratic organizational structure of public organizations may have a bearing on the management of change, but there is limited empirical evidence regarding this issue.

To summarize, the first objective of this study is to assess to what extent transformational leadership and different change management approaches contribute to willingness to change in a public organization. The second research objective is to examine to how these relationships are affected by bureaucratic organizational structure. The central research question is: How is the effectiveness of transformational leadership behavior of direct supervisors in planned and emergent change affected by a bureaucratic organizational structure?

In order to address the research objectives, the implementation of an organizational change in a Dutch public organization is analyzed using quantitative methods. In the next section, the literature concerning organizational change in the public sector is reviewed. Moreover, the relationships between leadership, processes of change and the organizational structure are discussed in order to formulate hypotheses. Methods, sample and measures provides an overview of the methods, sample and measures of this study. Results are presented in Analysis and Results, followed by a discussion of the results in Discussion, limitations, and implications for future research. In this section, limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are also discussed. The main conclusions are given in Conclusion.

Theoretical background and hypotheses

Organizational change in public organizations

Public organizations are often confronted with the need to implement organizational changes. However, the processes through which organizational change in public organizations come about have received relatively little attention in academic research ( Kickert, 2010, Kuipers et al., 2013 ). A prominent line of research that focuses on organizational change in public organizations is the public management reform perspective (e.g. Boyne et al., 2003, Kickert, 2007, Ongaro, 2010, Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2004). This perspective focuses on “the deliberate changes to the structures and processes of public sector organizations with the objective of getting them (in some sense) to run better” ( Pollitt & Bouckaert, 2004, p. 8 ). However, the public management reform perspective is focused on the content and effects of organizational changes on the sector or national level (e.g. Ackroyd et al., 2007, Heinrich, 2002, Pollitt, 2000), rather than on the implementation processes in individual organizations. As a consequence, the reform perspective has contributed little to insights about how the implementation of organizational change in the public sector is managed.

Theory on the management of organizational change management has traditionally been based on private sector research, cases and examples ( Stewart and Kringas, 2003, Thomas, 1996). Change management research has addressed the role of contextual factors during organizational change ( Armenakis and Bedeian, 1999, Pettigrew et al., 1992, Pettigrew et al., 2001), but not the specific contextual characteristics of public organizations ( Kuipers et al., 2013). In the past decade, the issue of change management in public organizations has received increased attention ( Fernandez and Pitts, 2007 , Fernandez and Rainey, 2006). Recent studies have focused on organizational changes in different types of public sector organizations, such as health care organizations ( Chustz and Larson, 2006, Isett et al., 2012 , Klarner et al., 2008 , McNulty and Ferlie, 2004 ), local government organizations ( Liguori, 2012, Seijts and Roberts, 2011, Zorn et al., 2000) and central government organizations ( Coram and Burnes, 2001 , Ryan et al., 2008, Sminia and Van Nistelrooij, 2006, Stewart and Kringas, 2003 , Stewart and O’Donnell, 2007).

Despite the increased attention for organizational change in public organizations, the literature has two considerable shortcomings. Based on a review of the literature on organizational change in public organizations between 2000 and 2010, Kuipers et al. (2013) state that most of the studies were based on case-based design using qualitative methods. Such studies often emphasize the importance of leadership during change in public organizations ( Karp and Helgø, 2008 , Klarner et al., 2008 , Ryan et al., 2008 ). Other than research conducted in the private sector (e.g. Herold et al., 2008, Higgs and Rowland, 2005 , Higgs and Rowland, 2010 , Liu, 2010), little research has studied the effects of leadership during change in public organizations ( Fernandez & Pitts, 2007 ). A first shortcoming is thus that existing research has little attention for the effectiveness of leadership and different approaches to change. An exception is Hennessey (1998), who studied the influence of leadership competencies during the implementation of ‘reinventing government’ changes in the United States.

A second shortcoming concerns the lack of empirical evidence about the specificity of organizational change in the public sector. A central point of view in public management research is that private sector insights may not be applicable in public organizations ( Boyne, 2006 ). There is a large literature on the specific characteristics of public organizations (e.g. Boyne, 2002 , Rainey, 2003 ). In addition, many studies have suggested that the specific public sector context may influence organizational change ( Isett et al., 2012 , Klarner et al., 2008 , McNulty and Ferlie, 2004 ). However, little research has empirically addressed the question what is specific or distinct about change in public organizations (exceptions are Kickert, 2013 , Robertson and Seneviratne, 1995). While many recent studies have studied change in public organizations, the distinctive characteristics of public organizations are generally not accounted for in the design or variables of these studies (e.g. Chustz and Larson, 2006 , Isett et al., 2012 , Klarner et al., 2008 , Sminia and Van Nistelrooij, 2006 , Tummers et al., 2012) As such, there is little empirical evidence about what makes change management specific in public organizations.

In order to formulate hypotheses about the effectiveness of organizational change in public organizations, change management and leadership theory is reviewed subsequently. Then, the relations between change and a bureaucratic organizational structure are discussed in order to formulate hypotheses concerning the specificity of organizational change in public organizat

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