Chat with us, powered by LiveChat How is the reintroduction of privatization impacting public policy decision making and the targeted social outcomes? For example, imagine a state determines that access to high-speed int - Wridemy Bestessaypapers

How is the reintroduction of privatization impacting public policy decision making and the targeted social outcomes? For example, imagine a state determines that access to high-speed int

TOPIC: How is the reintroduction of privatization impacting public policy decision making and the targeted social outcomes? For example, imagine a state determines that access to high-speed internet for every home is essential for long-term public health, yet in areas of the state, the market has determined that it is not profitable to provide the service. Should the state form a partnership with a private sector business (i.e., subsidize) to ensure that their social goal is obtained?




Project Milestone Three: Rough Draft

Destiny Nance

Southern New Hampshire University

PAD 630

January 8th, 2023

Introduction Public Administration In practice

The reappearance of privatization is affecting public policy and the consequences that were originally intended to benefit the general population. As defined by the Heritage Foundation, privatization "refers to efforts to reduce government involvement in either the design or conduct of a particular service" (Denhardt et al., 2018). When a service or asset is privatized, "we, the public," say the authors of "Privacy & Tools: Challenging Privatization" (2012), "lose the opportunity to have a voice in decisions impacting that service or asset." In theory, privatization sounds good, however The Partnership for Working Families "has documented countless examples that indicate that the stated benefits of privatization are largely misconceptions." (2012, "Privacy & Tools: Challenging Privatization").

Professionalism and political dualism were two of Woodrow Wilson's core beliefs; he is often regarded as the "founder of public administration" (Public Administration (Woodrow Wilson), 2021). After enrolling at Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson took a course in public administration, eventually publishing the widely read The Study of Administration. This article is considered seminal because it laid out the fundamentals of public administration and provided a road map for its implementation.

Public versus private administration is an argument that has remained contested for decades. Back in the 1980s, there was a widespread uptake of operations by governments, especially in the developed world’s such as Europe and America. Governments were deeply involved in establishing roads, bridges, and waterways. They were also involved in the service industry, such as health and installing hospital units. The services extended to the banking industry which the government played a major stakeholder. However, at the start of the 1990s, the shift changed so that privatization became the thing. The private industry's expected efficiency and self-sufficiency were vital factors driving the practice. Consequently, privatization has greatly affected the public policies of various governments (Wang et al., 2018). One such area is formulating policies that make high-speed Internet an essential tool in achieving long-term public health. It is essential for the state governments to form partnerships with the private industry to successfully deliver high-speed internet services to the general public for a healthy state.

Civil Service Implementation

Government agencies and departments adopted civil service in an effort to boost output, efficiency, and achievement. Considering this to have been the initial intention of the civil service, it is clear that the civil service has had a major impact on federal government service. Since the purpose of government is to ensure smooth operations, these checks ensure that the public sector is implementing the necessary reforms to realize its goals. They serve as counselors to those in public service, giving them advice on how they might enhance their performance.

High-speed internet services are quite a competitive business. It thus requires a capitalist-driven mind to keep one's business as a going concern. The need to make such a service available to all may be futile for any private business. However, incorporating the government brings some advantages that may make the process more efficient (Mendez et al, 2021). This includes applying the civil system mode of hiring based on patronage rather than patronage. The presence of civil government as an oversight board brings some sense of accountability of the firm to the general public and thus calls for more transparency in the conduction of daily business.

Local Government Operations

Privatization's prevalence is fast rising at national and local government levels. In the case of internet service delivery, the backbone of this essential service is being handed over to the private sector, with the local government leader taking less effect. The Domain Name System (DNS) and Internet Protocol (IP) address system have since been transferred from the governor's leadership (Tarnoff, 2022). The effect is that instead of the local governments having the mandate to provide a government-subsidized backbone to one where the private market is the one to provide such a service. The local government is now taking less role in the limelight and focusing on and easing operations of the private firms to make the service affordable to the citizens. Thus, this phenomenon can be equated to managers being more prevalent and less of the mayor.

Impact of Iron Triangle

The combination of ingredients in the Iron Triangle is fascinating. It's a mutually beneficial arrangement in which all three parties get something they want and contribute to the passage of policies. When lobbyists donate to a government body, it's because they hope the legislature will approve legislation that benefits their cause ( The Bureaucracy: The Real Government, n.d.). The special interest groups lobby the legislature by testifying positively about the bureaucracy in order to have the bureaucracy pass regulations that promote their interests.

Like many other policies, the privatization of high-speed internet services is subject to influence by partisans of the iron triangle. While the federal government is looking to extend its influence across the different states, the policy is unlikely to take effect if certain groups' needs are unmet. For instance, the service's subsidization level should be sufficient to attract private investors, who are often the special interest groups with the capacity to conduct such enormous projects. Nevertheless, the extent to which the special groups can hold a federal or local government at stake is usually counteracted by the presence of bureaucratic institutions that can offer such services. In the case of privatization of high-speed Internet, the bureaucratic institutions maintain unique roles, including maintenance and enforcement of the laws (Brownstein, 2020). Thus, where there is more bureaucratic power, special interests are at a disadvantage.

Organizational Differences

Although privatization has many drawbacks in the perspective of the public for many reasons, it also offers many benefits. Nonetheless, privatization might help the government address many of the problems it currently faces, including the enormous deficit it is experiencing and a lack of efficiency and discipline. Providing they hire the right non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the government can save money by privatizing additional services and put that money to better use elsewhere.

The powers of a government limit the extent of administration of high-speed Internet by the government. In the case of federal government involvement, the legislative laws in place only allow this form of government to play an oversight role rather than conduct the day-to-day activities left to the state government. The difference in state laws brings out systematic differences in service delivery and affordability (Brownstein, 2020). On the other hand, privatization eliminates border limitations and can traverse many states. Such private companies include Brightspeed and Spectrum. It is thus beneficial to operate as a private firm.

Legal Differences

Privatization-inducing mandates can be put in place to guarantee that the NGO delivering the service or good is up to snuff with what the government requires, or that the NGO is being treated and compensated properly. Furthermore, whether a service is provided by the government or a non-governmental organization, there may already be various mandates in place that will impact whoever is providing the service. The Federal Aviation Administration, which is part of the Department of Transportation, is charged with ensuring the security and reliability of the country's air travel system (Airport Privatization: Issues and Options for Congress, 2021).

Cultural Differences

Political appointments have the potential to harm both the public and private sectors. Something that has a bad effect on a private company's culture is likely to have an adverse effect on the company's bottom line. On the other hand, it might not have any effect on the culture at all than sparking some discussion among the staff. Evidence from the public sector showed that "after appointments were made in these agencies, enforcement actions saw a dramatic drop" (Political Appointments and Government Performance: What can be Done, 2017).

Branches of Government

The executive branch has some significant powers when it comes to enacting policies. Depending on how fit it considers the privatization of internet services, the policy can be passed and made into law or veto it altogether after congress has approved the process. On the other hand, the executive can also bypass congress through an executive order and make the policy formal even where there is congressional resistance (Laplane & Mazzucato, 2020). Even so, most of the time, decisions are reached in unison through affirmative action.

The executive branch is responsible for carrying out and enforcing legislation. As a result, it will be their responsibility to ensure that all legal requirements are met, both generally and with regard to the NGO, throughout the privatization of services. All laws and governmental budgets are crafted and managed by legislators. Therefore, it is possible that they would set the price tag for privatizing the service and decide how to tax the NGO's revenues.

Legislative Branch

The legislative branch of the government comprises the house and the senate. It is the arm that formulas the policies of internet privatization and the extent to which the government will be involved in service delivery (Laplane & Mazzucato, 2020). In addition, congress makes a budget to go with the policy such that upon its approval by the executive arm, the implementation process begins immediately.

Judiciary Branch

From time to time, the interests of the executive and legislative arms of the government conflict. Privatizing internet services may mean that major stakeholders in the iron triangle lose a significant amount of investment, which may limit the executive from enacting the law. Such conflicts require the incorporation of the judiciary to evaluate the interests of both parties as per the law and reach an agreement that serves as the final decision (Laplane & Mazzucato, 2020). It is thus essential that the judiciary acts independently.

Zero-Based Budgeting

New policy implementation comes with a designated budget. When privatizing the Internet and making it available to everyone, the government must subsidize private companies costs. In zero-based budgeting, such funds must be demonstrated to impact achieving the goal of improved public health positively (Menifield, 2020). Thus, it makes the managers more accountable while also working with a flexible budget if they can prove its usefulness. However, this budgeting is tedious and requires in-depth analysis for each financial year. Such intensity limits its proper adoption.

While zero-based budgeting has the potential to be incredibly useful, it is also notoriously challenging to put into practice. This is beneficial since it "forces them to justify all operating expenses" (Cheng, 2021). They will have to consider the value of every dollar spent by asking themselves where it's going and why. Starting a budget from scratch can be challenging and time-consuming. It might be less time- and labor-consuming to simply adjust an existing budget after analyzing it to discover which parts succeeded and which didn't in the past.

Performance-Based Budgeting

By focusing on actual results rather than estimates, performance-based budgeting can be a very useful tool. Instead of deciding where every dollar goes, a performance-based budget is focused on what has to be accomplished. The budget will allocate a certain amount of money to each objective, which can be spent in any way that best serves the objective. Creating a larger buffer inside the budget allows for more flexible spending.

Performance-based budgeting works well in such a scenario where public healthcare is the measure of the efficacy of subsidizing high-speed Internet. If the subsidy can improve healthcare-seeking behavior, for instance, it is justified to allocate more funds (Menifield, 2020). While this mode encourages transparency, it can also attract conflicting priorities.

Emerging Budget Strategies

One method of constructing a budget that uses historical data is called activity-based budgeting. They start with the end in mind and work backward to determine the best course of action and the associated costs. In order to accurately estimate the budget's needs and account for all costs, this method can be quite helpful; however, it requires careful attention to detail to guarantee that nothing is overlooked. If you don't account for every department that's essential for running things but might not have much of an effect on the end result, you might miss out on some funding ( Five types of budgets: Which one is right for you, 2021).

Impact of Social Media

Increasing access to high-speed Internet boosts not only public health access but also the number of social media users. Through such forums as Twitter, individuals are now able to air their views and agitate for change in government offices more (Hyland et al., 2021). The government operations are thus better and encourage more accountability.

For the state, social media has both positive and negative aspects. Compared to other methods, it can help the government get an urgent message out to a wide audience quickly. It can also reach people who may not be exposed to news on television or other similar media (Gramlich, 2020). Videos of meetings, campaigns, and so forth can also be uploaded there for the benefit of those who were unable to catch the original broadcast.

Impact of Other Media Types

Television news is a popular form of media. Many citizens rely on their local news channel as a source of government-issued information and updates. The problem with the public depending on the news for government updates is that many news outlets are biased. There are news outlets that present any and every information as if it were true (Gramlich, 2020).

Communication Strategies

The communication strategies of government leaders have been profoundly altered by the explosion of media outlets. They have to spend more time communicating because they have to use every available channel to maximize their impact. They have to make sure that their written notification is clear so that people get the message, and then they have to put it up in a lot of different locations.


Brownstein, M. R. (2020). The Quality of Internet Access and Political Engagement (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University Graduate School).

Denhardt, R. B., Denhardt, J. V., & Blanc, T. A. (2018). Public administration: An action orientation (7th ed.). Suzanna Jeans.

Andrew. (2021, July 9). Public Administration (Woodrow Wilson). Zambianguardian.

Dubnick, M. (2018). Demons, Spirits, and Elephants: Reflections on the Failure of Public Administration Theory. Scholars UNH.

Mayor-Council Government. Ballotpedia. (n.d.).

Independence Hall Association. (n.d.). The Bureaucracy: The Real Government.

Congressional Research Service. (2021, March 11). Airport privatization: Issues and options for Congress.

Political appointments and government performance: What can be done? PA TIMES Online. (2017, January 31).

Cheng, M. (2021, June 27). Zero-based budgeting: Benefits and Drawbacks. Investopedia.

Five types of budgets: Which one is right for you? insightsoftware. (2021, August 25).

Gramlich, J. (2020, August 18). 5 facts about Fox News. Pew Research Center.

Hyland-Wood, B., Gardner, J., Leask, J., & Ecker, U. K. (2021). Toward effective government communication strategies in the era of COVID-19. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 8(1), 1-11.

Laplane, A., & Mazzucato, M. (2020). Socializing the risks and rewards of public investments: Economic, policy, and legal issues. Research Policy, 49, 100008.

Menifield, C. E. (2020). The basics of public budgeting and financial management: A handbook for academics and practitioners. Hamilton Books.

Mendez, S., Molnar, G., & Savage, S. J. (2021). The Impacts of the Lifeline Subsidy on High-Speed Internet Access. The Journal of Law and Economics, 64(4), 745-782.

Tarnoff, B. (2022). Internet for the People: The Fight for Our Digital Future. Verso Books.

Wang, H., Xiong, W., Wu, G., & Zhu, D. (2018). Public–private partnership in Public Administration discipline: a literature review. Public management review, 20(2), 293-316.


PAD 630 Final Project Guidelines and Rubric


Understanding the organizational, legal, and cultural differences between managing in the public sector versus the private sector is vital to organizational success. Public managers face unique challenges (both ideological and practical), which is why an understanding of the dynamic interaction of theory and practice is important. In addition, public managers need to understand the enduring issues and evolving tools required in public service.

For the final project, you will write a white paper focusing on an organizational, a legal, or a cultural challenge in the field of public administration. Early in the course, you will select an issue that is of interest to you. Your chosen challenge will act as the lens through which you will examine the impacts of various theories on the practice of public administration. You will also assess the role of the executive, judicial, and legislative branches in developing public policy, and you will evaluate budgeting techniques and communication strategies for their effectiveness.

The project is divided into three milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules Two, Five, and Eight. The final project will be submitted in Module Ten.

This assessment addresses the following course outcomes:

 Contrast the views of early public administration theorists for determining their impact on the public administration profession

 Assess the impact of professional management on the effectiveness of governmental operations at the federal, state, and local levels

 Analyze essential organizational, cultural, and legal differences between public administration and private sector management for determining their impact on governmental operations

 Differentiate among the roles of the executive, judicial, and legislative branches in establishing and implementing public policy at the federal and state governmental levels

 Evaluate public budgeting techniques for their effect on governmental organizations and stakeholders

 Assess real-world communication strategies employed by governmental institutions for their effectiveness in enhancing public outreach and developing a sense of community


Your final project should focus on an organizational, a legal, or a cultural challenge facing public administrators that is of interest to you. Using this challenge as your lens, write a white paper discussing the impact different theories have had on the practice of public administration and examining the unique challenges facing managers in the public sector. Remember that the focus of your paper is the public administration challenge that you selected.

You may select one of these challenges to public administration, or you may choose another, with instructor approval:

 Discuss the emergence of the “governance without government” concept, which focuses on the importance of networks, nontraditional partnerships, and the markets to guide society, rather than traditional bureaucratic institutions. This movement has taken hold in Europe and is gaining momentum in the United States.

 How is the new public administration movement impacting the “accountability versus efficiency” paradigm that has defined the profession since its inception?

 How is the reintroduction of privatization impacting public policy decision making and the targeted social outcomes? For example, imagine a state determines that access to high-speed internet for every home is essential for long-term public health, yet in areas of the state, the market has determined that it is not profitable to provide the service. Should the state form a partnership with a private sector business (i.e., subsidize) to ensure that their social goal is obtained?

 What are effective performance measures to evaluate programs and management in the public sector? Traditionally, the focus has been on measuring inputs and activities. Is this focus still effective?

 How can flexibility and creativity be integrated into the structures of public organizations in a way that allows for nimble, street-level decision making to swiftly adapt to ever-changing environmental conditions while maintaining some level of accountability to the citizens?

Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:

I. Introduction Concisely describe your chosen organizational, legal, or cultural challenge in the field of public administration.

II. Theoretical Overview: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected. A. Public Administration Advocates: Describe the original advocates for the development of professional public management within the federal

government of the United States. In your description, consider questions such as these: What were their viewpoints? How did they advocate for the development of public administration?

B. Impact on Public Administration: Differentiate between the views of Dwight Waldo and Herbert Simon. How did each impact the development of the public administration profession?

C. Public Administration Dichotomy: Analyze the founding dichotomy of public administration as expressed by Dwight Waldo for its impact on public administration practice.

III. Public Administration in Practice A. Governmental Operations: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected.

1. Civil Service Implementation: Assess the impact that the implementation of civil service had on the effectiveness of public service in the federal government.

2. Local Governmental Operations: Illustrate how public administration has manifested itself in local governmental operations. In other words, what impact has professional management had on local governmental operations? For example, you could consider how prevalent the mayor/manager form of government is.

3. Impact of Iron Triangle: Assess the impact of the “iron triangle” on public policy and program administration at the state and federal levels of government. In other words, how does the bureaucracy counterbalance the direct relationship between special interests and the legislature?

B. Differences Between Public Administration and Private Sector Management: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected.

1. Organizational Differences: Contrast the impact of political boundaries in governmental operations versus the private sector. For example, you could consider how political boundaries impact program and operational efficiencies. Provide specific examples to support your response.

2. Legal Differences: Analyze mandates, legal and nonlegal, related to the challenge you selected. How do they impact the operations of state and local governments? How do these mandates apply to private sector firms? Provide specific examples to support your response.

3. Cultural Differences: Illustrate the impacts politics can have on administrative appointments in the public and private sectors. In other words, what is the impact of political appointments on the culture of governmental agencies and private businesses? Provide specific examples to support your response.

C. Roles of the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branches: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected.

1. Executive Branch: Outline the role of the executive branch of government in the development of public policy, specifically related to the challenge you selected.

2. Legislative Branch: Outline the role of the legislative branch of government in the development of public policy, specifically related to the challenge you selected.

3. Judicial Branch: What role does the court system play in arbitrating public policy disputes between the executive and legislative branches of government? Focus specifically on how the judicial branch has impacted the challenge you selected.

D. Public Budgeting Techniques: Ensure that you focus specifically on the organizational, legal, or cultural challenge that you selected. 1. Zero-Based Budgeting: Assess the principle of zero-based budgeting for how it has impacted federal programs and their stakeholders.

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