20 Mar How does self disclosure impact intimacy between friends?-How does having close friends a?ect happiness and life satisfaction?Sociology – considers how social structure and culture shape fr
sociology discussion question
This assignment should have a minimum of 400 words, but no more than 600 words. I’d like you to think of a question or topic of traditional interest to sociology. A way to identify one is to think of the different courses you have taken and how would the social psychological material presented this week help us to understand that issue more fully.
Requirements: 400-600 words
Affect vs. Emotion vs. MoodsAffect: subjective positive or negative evaluation of an object Ðincludes both direction or valence (positive/negative) and strength (intensity)oEmotion: short-lived affective response to an object. Include a positive/negative cognitive dimension but also a physiological accounting for how individuals feel. Tend to be situation specificoMoods: emotional states that are more general, enduring, and likely to be experienced across contexts
Emotions: What are they?Situational stimulusPhysiological changesExpressive gesturingLabel
Primary Emotions J. TurnerPrimary emotionsoSatisfaction-happinessoAversion-fearoAssertion-angeroDisappointment-sadness
Identities and EmotionsSelf-Consistency TheoriesoSelf-Discrepancy TheoryThree identity ÒstatesÓ: oActual Ðwho you currently areoIdeal Ðwho you would like to beoOught Ðwho you should beActual/ideal discrepancy -> depressionActual/ought discrepancy -> anxietyStatus and Emotion ÐKemper (1978)oEmotions result of whether our expectations for power and status are metWhen we donÕt get the status we expect, we experience negative emotion
Emotion, Culture, and Social StructureEmotion Rules: rules that dictate what people with our identities ought to feel in a given situation Ðhow deep, how long, how expressedoEmotional deviance: when we are unable to effectively manage our emotions and instead project an emotion that is inappropriate . Different emotion rules for different bodiesoGender Ðmen allowed to express anger; women sadnessoRace ÐÓAre Some Emotions Marked ÔWhites Only?Õ) (Wingfield 2010)How are the feeling rules in the workplace racialized?oClass –higher status allowed to express anger
Emotions, Culture, and Social StructureEmotion Work/Management: attempts to change the intensity or quality of feelings to bring them into line with the requirements of the occasionoSurface acting Ðchanges only the expression of emotionoDeep acting Ðtransforms our emotional stateEmotion Labor ÐÒeffort that an individual makes to bring about a feeling state in oneself in order to elicit a desired feeling state in anotherÓ within the context of paid employmentoMost often associated with service industry Ðdisproportionately women, people of color, and low status occupations
Studying Friendship in Psychology vs Sociology & What a Social Psych Perspective Adds(plus my research on gender, race, socioeconomic class, and friendship closeness!)SOC 147: Social PsychologyGuest Lecture by Emily Fox March 6, 2023
Why should we care about friendship???Physical and Mental Health??Education ??Careers and jobs??Values and Beliefs ??Self and Identity
Psychology – focuses on how individuals experience friendship and the results -How does self disclosure impact intimacy between friends?-How does having close friends a?ect happiness and life satisfaction?Sociology – considers how social structure and culture shape friendships and friendship experience, places the individual in the larger context of society -How does school segregation a?ect rates of cross-race friendship among children?-How do social networks shape labor market outcomes?Studying friendship in Psych vs Soc
What a Social Psych perspective adds to our understanding of friendshipSocial Psychology – allows us to consider both individual (micro) and societal (macro) level factors that impact relationships, and the interplay between the twoIndividual level: How does friendship closeness di?er for men and women? Structural level: How do gender ideologies, systematic racism, class inequalities, and other systems of inequality shape friendship patterns? How do systems of inequality shape friendship? How does this a?ect individualsʼ experience of friendship, creating disparities in closeness?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XOt2Vh0T8wPsych research from the 70s-90s supports this narrative : robustly documented Gender Friendship Gap? -What do you think of this conclusion?Stereotypes about gender and friendship are they true?
How does the intersection of gender, ethnoracial identity, and socioeconomic class shape young adults friendship closeness???National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97)??questions about respondentʼs best friend in 2002, when respondents were 18-22 years old
How does the intersection of gender, ethnoracial identity, and socioeconomic class shape young adults friendship closeness???On a scale of 0 to 10, where 0 is not close at all and 10 is very close, how close do you feel towards (him/her)????Gender: men, women??Ethnoracial identity: Black, Latinx, white??Socioeconomic class: highest grade completed by respondentʼs residential guardian used as proxy
Predicted Closeness to Best Friend by Gender and Ethnoracial Identity
Predicted Closeness to Best Friend by Gender and Ethnoracial IdentityHigher SES ?? lower closeness for white Rs
Friendship experience is not only gendered, but also ethnoracialized and classed! -Psychological research on friendship cannot capture the ideological and structural constraints on friendship experience we are socialized to have certain ideas about gender, race, and class. These attitudes and beliefs influence:-what we consider acceptable? behavior in di?erent contexts and when performed by di?erent people (friendship frames? = scripts, roles, actors, audience)-what we expect out our relationships and friends (stereotypes, expectation states theory)-how much we value friendships, emotionality, community, interdependenceWhy do white young men report the least close friendships?
Could this be a relational cost of privilege??-Economically privileged white men may sacrifice closeness and connection in their relationships, particularly in their platonic relationships with other men, in order to maintain their status and the large networks of weak ties that help them get ahead. -On the other hand, women, minoritized ethnoracial groups, and lower-class white men may invest in these relationships because they regularly face hardships. Because they do not have access to institutional support and protection like high status white men do, they must seek care from friends and community. Why do white young men report the least close friendships?
What is a group?Attributes1)Membership Ðmust think of oneself as a member and be recognized by others as a member2)Interaction among members Ðcommunicate and influence each other3)Shared goals Ðinterdependent and shared attainment4)Normative structure Ðset of expectations for those who belong to the group.
What is a group?Reasons for belonging to a groupoCohesion ÐÒextent to which members of a group desire to remain in that group and resist leaving itÓTask cohesion Ðmembers remain together because they are oriented toward a particular taskSocial cohesion Ðmembers stay in the group because they like one another as persons and want to interact with each other
Competition and Cooperation in GroupsIndividual vs. group interestsoSocial dilemmasSituation in which a desirable choice for the individual results in undesirable consequences for the group
Prisoners DilemmaNot ConfessConfessNot ConfessBOTH get 1 yearA is releasedB gets 15 yearsConfessA gets15 yearsB is releasedBOTHget 10 yearsPrisoner BPrisoner A
Classic scenarioChoice XChoiceYChoice X+10 Pete+10 Joe+15 Pete-15 JoeChoice Y-15 Pete+15 Joe-5 Pete-5 JoeJoePete
What fosters competition/cooperation in groups?Presence of others ÐSherif, AschoAuthority ÐMilgram, etc.Communication
What fosters competition/cooperation in groups?Presence of others ÐAschoAuthority ÐMilgram, etc.CommunicationPersonal valuesoCooperatorsoCompetitorsoIndividualists
What fosters competition/cooperation in groups?Presence of others ÐAschoAuthority ÐMilgram, etc.CommunicationPersonal valuesReward StructuresoCompetitive independence: one personÕs gain is anotherÕs lossoCooperative interdependence: one personÕs gain is anotherÕs gainoIndividualistic: outcomes of individuals are independent
What fosters competition/cooperation in groups?Presence of others ÐAschoAuthority ÐMilgram, etc.CommunicationPersonal ValuesReward StructuresReciprocityCohesionCulture?
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